Virginia Cancer Data

Risk Factors1

  • Various genetic, reproductive, and lifestyle factors are associated with breast cancer risk. Factors that increase the risk of developing breast cancer include female sex, aging, family history, certain genetic mutations (e.g. BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes), dense breast tissue, certain benign breast conditions, early age at menarche, late age at menopause, never having children, age at birth of first child of 30 or older, recent oral contraceptive use, postmenopausal hormone use, overweight/obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and alcohol use.
  • Steps that women can take to decrease their risk of developing breast cancer include being physically active, maintaining a healthy weight, limiting alcohol consumption, and breastfeeding.

Warning Signs and Symptoms1

  • Abnormal finding on a mammogram
  • Breast lump
  • Other breast changes such as skin irritation, retraction, or discharge

Early Detection1

  • Screening mammography (x-ray of the breast) according to guidelines
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is also recommended for some high-risk women

Breast Cancer Facts

  • Figure 1

    Female Breast Cancer in Virginia
    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) and the second leading cause of cancer death (after lung cancer) among women in the United States.
  • One in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer during her lifetime.1
  • Over the 2004-2008 time period, the incidence rate of breast cancer was 124.2 cases per 100,000 women in Virginia.2 (U.S. rate=124.0 cases per 100,000 women)3
  • Figure 1 shows breast cancer incidence rates by health district in Virginia. Chesterfield, Henrico, and Portsmouth had the highest incidence rates of breast cancer among the 35 health districts.2
  • Figure 2

    Female Breast Cancer Mortality in Virginia
    Over the 2005-2009 time period, the mortality rate from breast cancer was 24.7 deaths per 100,000 women in Virginia.4 (U.S. rate=22.9 deaths per 100,000 women)5
  • Figure 2 shows breast cancer mortality rates by health district in Virginia. Portsmouth, Norfolk, and Lenowisco had the highest mortality rates from breast cancer among the 35 health districts.4
  • White and black women in Virginia were diagnosed with breast cancer at similar rates;2 however, black women had a mortality rate that was over 50% higher than that of white women.4
  • Breast cancer has a five-year relative survival rate of 98 percent if diagnosed in its earliest (local) stage when it is most curable.1 In Virginia, 60 percent of breast cancer diagnosed was local stage.2
  • Figure 3 shows the percentage of breast cancer cases diagnosed local stage by health district in Virginia. New River, Western Tidewater, and Norfolk had the lowest percentage of breast cancer cases diagnosed local stage among the 35 health districts.2
  • White women (62%) were more likely to have their breast cancer diagnosed local stage than African- American women (52%).2
  • Figure 3

    Female Breast Cancer Mortality in Virginia
    According to 2008 health behavior survey data, 78% of Virginia women 40 years and older reported having had a mammogram in the previous two years. (U.S. average=76%)6
  • Figure 4 shows mammography screening rates by health district in Virginia. Lord Fairfax, Central Virginia, and Cumberland Plateau had the lowest mammography screening rates among the 35 health districts.7
  • Mammography screening rates were lower among women who were less educated, lower income, and uninsured. Mammography screening rates did not differ significantly between African-American and white women.7
  • Figure 4

    Female Breast Cancer Mortality in Virginia
    In Virginia in 2009, there were 1,751 inpatient hospitalizations for female breast cancer, at a total cost of over $53.5 million. The average length of stay was 2.4 days and the average charge per stay was $30,567.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 American Cancer Society Cancer Facts & Figures 2009 (http://www.cancer.org)

2 Virginia Cancer Registry. Based on combined data from 2004-2008. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

3 Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Neyman N, Aminou R, Waldron W, Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Cho H, Mariotto A, Eisner MP, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA, Edwards BK (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2008, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2008/, based on November 2010 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, 2011. Based on combined data from 2004-2008. Rates are ageadjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

4 VDH Division of Health Statistics. Based on combined data from 2005-2009. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

5 Xu JQ, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2007. National vital statistics reports; vol 58 no 19. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr58/nvsr58_19.pdf. National rate is the 2007 age-adjusted rate, which is comparable to the state five-year interval midpoint.

6 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008. (http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/brfss) Accessed 6/2/10.

7 Virginia Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Based on 2006 and 2008 (pooled) data. Percentages are populationweighted.

8 VDH Virginia Health Information Hospital Discharge Patient-Level Dataset.

This publication was supported by the Cooperative Agreement Number #5U58DP000780 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent official views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Risk Factors1

  • Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major cause of cervical cancer. Thus, beginning sexual activity at an early age and having multiple sex partners are factors that put women at increased risk of acquiring HPV and developing cervical cancer. Many women become infected with HPV that does not progress to cervical cancer. Immunosuppression and cigarette smoking are risk factors for progression to cervical cancer.
  • The FDA has approved Gardasil, a vaccine against several common HPV strains, for females between the ages of 9 and 26 years as a way to prevent cervical cancer.

Warning Signs and Symptoms1

  • There are no early warning signs of the precancerous changes that can progress to cervical cancer.
  • Once cervical cancer has developed, symptoms can include abnormal vaginal bleeding such as bleeding between menstrual periods, bleeding after sexual intercourse, and bleeding after menopause.

Early Detection1

  • Screening by Pap test according to guidelines

Cervical Cancer Facts

  • Figure 1

    Female Breast Cancer in Virginia
    Cervical cancer is not among the top ten cancers diagnosed, nor is it among the top ten causes of cancer death, among women in the United States. One in 145 women will be diagnosed with cervical cancer during her lifetime. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality have fallen substantially over the last several decades due to Pap test screening.1
  • Over the 2004-2008 time period, the incidence rate of cervical cancer was 6.7 cases per 100,000 women in Virginia.2(U.S. rate=8.1 cases per 100,000 women) 3
  • Figure 1 shows cervical cancer incidence rates by health district in Virginia. Eastern Shore, Portsmouth, and Norfolk had the highest incidence rates of cervical cancer among the 35 health districts.2
  • Over the 2005-2009 time period, the mortality rate from cervical cancer was 2.2 deaths per 100,000 women in Virginia.4 (U.S. rate=2.4 deaths per 100,000 women)5
  • Cervical cancer incidence rates did not differ significantly between African-American and white women;2 however, African-American women had a mortality rate that was 74% higher than that of white women.4
  • Figure 2

    Female Breast Cancer Mortality in Virginia
    Cervical cancer has a five-year relative survival rate of 92 percent if diagnosed in its earliest (local) stage when it is most curable.1 In Virginia, 46% of cervical cancer diagnosed was local stage. 2
  • White women (48%) were more likely to have their cervical cancer diagnosed local stage than African-American women (38%).2
  • According to 2008 health behavior survey data, 83% of Virginia women aged 18 years and older reported having had a Pap test in the previous three years. (U.S. average=83%) 6
  • According to 2008 health behavior survey data, 78% of Virginia women 40 years and older reported having had a mammogram in the previous two years. (U.S. average=76%)6
  • Figure 2 shows cervical cancer screening prevalence by health district in Virginia. Mount Rogers, Central Shenandoah, and West Piedmont had the lowest percentages of Pap test screening among the 35 health districts.7
  • Pap test screening prevalence was lower among women who were less educated, lower income, and uninsured. Pap test screening did not differ substantially between African-American and white women. 7
  • In Virginia in 2009, there were 253 inpatient hospitalizations for cervical cancer, at a total cost of over $7.6 million. The average length of stay was 3.8 days and the average charge per stay was $30,317.8

1 American Cancer Society Cancer Facts & Figures 2009 (http://www.cancer.org)

2 Virginia Cancer Registry. Based on combined data from 2004-2008. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

3 Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Neyman N, Aminou R, Waldron W, Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Cho H, Mariotto A, Eisner MP, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA, Edwards BK (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2008, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2008/, based on November 2010 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, 2011. Based on combined data from 2004-2008. Rates are ageadjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

4 VDH Division of Health Statistics. Based on combined data from 2005-2009. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

5 Xu JQ, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2007. National vital statistics reports; vol 58 no 19. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr58/nvsr58_19.pdf. National rate is the 2007 age-adjusted rate, which is comparable to the state five-year interval midpoint.

6 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008. (http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/brfss) Accessed 6/2/10.

7 Virginia Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Based on 2006 and 2008 (pooled) data. Percentages are populationweighted.

8 VDH Virginia Health Information Hospital Discharge Patient-Level Dataset.

This publication was supported by the Cooperative Agreement Number #5U58DP000780 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent official views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Risk Factors1

  • Various genetic and lifestyle factors are associated with colorectal cancer risk. Factors that increase the risk of developing colorectal cancer include age (over 90% of colorectal cancers are diagnosed in people 50 and older), personal/family history of colorectal polyps or cancer, certain genetic mutations, overweight/obesity, sedentary lifestyle, high red/processed meat consumption, and heavy alcohol use.
  • Steps that individuals can take to decrease their risk of developing colorectal cancer include being physically active, maintaining a healthy weight, eating a healthy diet (high in fruits and vegetables and low in red/processed meats), limiting alcohol consumption, and not smoking.

Warning Signs and Symptoms1

  • There are no early warning signs/symptoms of the disease; hence colorectal screening is especially important for detecting the disease at an early stage when it is most treatable.
  • Later stage symptoms of the disease include blood in the rectum/in the stool, bowel habit changes, and abdominal discomfort/cramping.

Early Detection1

  • Screening (using one of several testing options) is recommended starting at age 50 for adults at average risk of the disease to look for cancer as well as precancerous polyps that could progress to cancer.

Colorectal Cancer Facts

    Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) and the third leading cause of cancer death among men and women in the United States. One in eighteen men and one in twenty women will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates have fallen over the past couple of decades.1

  • Over the 2004-2008 time period, the incidence rate of colorectal cancer in Virginia was 45.1 cases per 100,000.2 (U.S. rate=47.2 cases per 100,000)3
  • Figure 1

    Colorectal Cancer in Virginia
    Figure 1 shows colorectal cancer incidence rates by health district in Virginia. Central Virginia Pittsylvania/Danville, and Portsmouth had the highest incidence rates of colorectal cancer among the 35 health districts.2
  • Over the 2005-2009 time period, the mortality rate from colorectal cancer in Virginia was 16.7 deaths per 100,000.4 (U.S. rate=16.9 deaths per 100,000)5
  • Figure 2 shows colorectal cancer mortality rates by health district in Virginia. Portsmouth, Chesterfield, and Western Tidewater had the highest mortality rates from colorectal cancer among the 35 health districts.4
  • Figure 2

    Colorectal Cancer in Virginia
    Incidence rates in Virginia were higher in men compared to women and in African-Americans compared to whites. African-American men were diagnosed with colorectal cancer at an especially high rate. Incidence rate (per 100,000 population) = 65.5 for African-American men, 50.0 for white men, 48.8 for African-American women, and 37.7 for white women.2
  • Mortality rates in Virginia were higher in men compared to women and in African-Americans compared to whites. African-American men died from colorectal cancer at an especially high rate. Mortality rate (per 100,000 population) = 29.8 for African-American men, 19.9 for African-American women, 18.6 for white men, and 13.4 for white women.4
  • Colorectal cancer has a five-year relative survival rate of 90 percent if diagnosed in its earliest (local) stage when it is most curable.1 In Virginia, 40 percent of colorectal cancer diagnosed was local stage.2
  • Figure 3

    Colorectal Cancer in Virginia
    Figure 3 shows the percentage of colorectal cancer cases diagnosed local stage by health district in Virginia. Arlington, Eastern Shore, and Chesterfield had the lowest percentage of colorectal cancer cases diagnosed local stage among the 35 health districts.2
  • The percentage of colorectal cancer cases diagnosed local stage was low for whites (41%) and African-Americans (37%).2
  • According to 2008 health behavior survey data, 70% of Virginia adults aged 50 years and older reported ever having had an endoscopy (e.g. colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy). (U.S. average=62%)6
  • Figure 4

    Colorectal Cancer in Virginia
    Figure 4 shows the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening (sigmoidoscopy/endoscopy within 5 years and/or blood stool test within one year among adults aged 50 years and older) by health district in Virginia. Lenowisco, New River, and Southside had the lowest percentages of colorectal screening among the 35 health districts.7
  • Colorectal screening rates were lower among adults who were less educated, lower income, and uninsured but did not differ significantly between African-Americans and whites.7
  • In Virginia in 2009, there were 3,093 inpatient hospitalizations for colorectal cancer, at a total cost of over $156 million. The average length of stay was 8.0 days and the average charge per stay was $50,470.8

1 American Cancer Society Cancer Facts & Figures 2009 (http://www.cancer.org)

2 Virginia Cancer Registry. Based on combined data from 2004-2008. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

3 Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Neyman N, Aminou R, Waldron W, Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Cho H, Mariotto A, Eisner MP, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA, Edwards BK (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2008, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2008/, based on November 2010 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, 2011. Based on combined data from 2004-2008. Rates are ageadjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

4 VDH Division of Health Statistics. Based on combined data from 2005-2009. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

5 Xu JQ, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2007. National vital statistics reports; vol 58 no 19. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr58/nvsr58_19.pdf. National rate is the 2007 age-adjusted rate, which is comparable to the state five-year interval midpoint.

6 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008. (http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/brfss) Accessed 6/2/10.

7 Virginia Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Based on 2006 and 2008 (pooled) data. Percentages are populationweighted.

8 VDH Virginia Health Information Hospital Discharge Patient-Level Dataset.

This publication was supported by the Cooperative Agreement Number #5U58DP000780 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent official views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Risk Factors1

  • Cigarette smoking is the strongest risk factor for lung and bronchus cancer.
  • Other risk factors include environmental/occupational exposures to second-hand smoke, radon, and asbestos (especially in smokers).
  • Genetic factors may increase susceptibility to the disease.
  • The most important step an individual can take to prevent lung and bronchus cancer is to not smoke.

Warning Signs and Symptoms1

  • Chronic cough
  • Coughing up blood
  • Chest pain
  • Recurrent respiratory infections

Early Detection1

  • There are no screening tests that have been shown to decrease mortality from the disease.
  • A large study, the National Lung Screening Trial, is currently underway investigating whether two screening methods, chest x-ray or spiral CT, can reduce mortality among high-risk individuals.

Lung and Bronchus Cancer Facts

  • Lung and bronchus cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) and the leading cause of cancer death among both men and women in the United States. One in thirteen men and one in sixteen women will be diagnosed with lung and bronchus cancer during their lifetime. Incidence and mortality rates among men have fallen over the last two decades. Increasing incidence and mortality rates among women have leveled off in recent years.1
  • Figure 1

    Lung Cancer in Virginia
    Over the 2004-2008 time period, the incidence rate of lung and bronchus cancer in Virginia was 68.4 cases per 100,000.2 (U.S. rate=62.0 cases per 100,000)3
  • Figure 1 shows incidence rates of lung and bronchus cancer by health district in Virginia. Lenowisco, Crater, and Roanoke had the highest incidence rates of lung and bronchus cancer among the 35 health districts.2
  • Over the 2005-2009 time period, the mortality rate from lung and bronchus cancer in Virginia was 52.7 deaths per 100,000.4 (U.S. rate=50.6 deaths per 100,000)5
  • Figure 2

    Lung Cancer in Virginia
    Figure 2 shows lung and bronchus cancer mortality rates by health district in Virginia. Lenowisco, Eastern Shore, and Crater had the highest mortality rates from lung and bronchus cancer among the 35 health districts.4
  • Mortality rates were higher in men compared to women in Virginia. African-American men died from lung and bronchus cancer at an especially high rate. Mortality rate (per 100,000 population) = 88.7 for African-American men, 68.2 for white men, 41.9 for white women, and 38.3 for African-American women.4
  • Lung and bronchus cancer has a five-year relative survival rate of 50 percent if diagnosed in its earliest (local) stage.1 In Virginia, only 18 percent of lung and bronchus cancer diagnosed was local stage.2
  • Figure 3

    Lung Cancer in Virginia
    Figure 3 shows the percentage of lung and bronchus cancer cases diagnosed local stage by health district in Virginia. Arlington, Western Tidewater, and Crater had the lowest percentage of lung and bronchus cancer cases diagnosed local stage among the 35 health districts.2
  • The percentage of lung and bronchus cancer cases diagnosed local stage was low for both whites (19%) and African-Americans (14%) in Virginia.2
  • According to 2009 health behavior survey data, 19% of adults in Virginia were current smokers (U.S. average=18%).6
  • Figure 4

    Lung Cancer in Virginia
    Figure 4 shows current smoking rates by health district in Virginia. Lenowisco, Southside, and Mount Rogers had the highest smoking percentages among the 35 health districts.7
  • Prevalence of current smoking was higher among those who were less educated, lower income, and uninsured. Current smoking prevalence was about 20% in African-Americans vs. 18% in whites.7
  • In Virginia in 2009, there were 3,210 inpatient hospitalizations for lung and bronchus cancer, at a total cost of over $138 million. The average length of stay was 6.7 days and the average charge per stay was $43,064.8

1 American Cancer Society Cancer Facts & Figures 2009 (http://www.cancer.org)

2 Virginia Cancer Registry. Based on combined data from 2004-2008. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

3 Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Neyman N, Aminou R, Waldron W, Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Cho H, Mariotto A, Eisner MP, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA, Edwards BK (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2008, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2008/, based on November 2010 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, 2011. Based on combined data from 2004-2008. Rates are ageadjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

4 VDH Division of Health Statistics. Based on combined data from 2005-2009. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

5 Xu JQ, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2007. National vital statistics reports; vol 58 no 19. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr58/nvsr58_19.pdf. National rate is the 2007 age-adjusted rate, which is comparable to the state five-year interval midpoint.

6 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008. (http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/brfss) Accessed 6/2/10.

7 Virginia Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Based on 2006 and 2008 (pooled) data. Percentages are populationweighted.

8 VDH Virginia Health Information Hospital Discharge Patient-Level Dataset.

This publication was supported by the Cooperative Agreement Number #5U58DP000780 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent official views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Risk Factors1

  • Tobacco use and excessive alcohol use are the two major risk factors for developing oral cancer. Individuals who are heavy users of both tobacco and alcohol are at especially high risk.
  • Infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) may be the cause of some types of oral cancers.
  • Steps that an individual can take to prevent oral cancer include not using tobacco products and limiting alcohol consumption.

Warning Signs and Symptoms1

  • Earlier symptoms include persistent growths or sores in the mouth or throat.
  • Later symptoms include trouble chewing, swallowing, or moving the mouth.

Early Detection1

  • An examination of the mouth and throat by a dentist or primary care physician

Oral Cancer Facts

  • Oral cancer is among the top ten most commonly diagnosed cancers among men but not among women in the United States. It is relatively rare as a cause of death. Incidence and mortality rates in both men and women have fallen over the last couple of decades.1
  • Over the 2004-2008 time period, the incidence rate of oral cancer in Virginia was 10.4 cases per 100,000.2 (U.S. rate=10.6 cases per 100,000)3

    Figure 1

    Oral Cancer in Virginia
  • Figure 1 shows incidence rates of oral cancer by health district in Virginia. Portsmouth, Eastern Shore, and Crater had the highest incidence rates of oral cancer among the 35 health districts.2
  • Over the 2005-2009 time period, the mortality rate from oral cancer in Virginia was 2.2 deaths per 100,000.4 (U.S. rate=2.5 deaths per 100,000)5
  • Incidence rates were higher in men (15.9 cases per 100,000) compared to women (5.7 cases per 100,000) in Virginia. The incidence rate was higher for African-American males (16.9 per 100,000) compared to white males (15.9 per 100,000) and was higher among white females (6.0 per 100,000) compared to African-American females (4.5 per 100,000).2
  • Mortality rates were higher in men (3.6 deaths per 100,000) compared to women (1.2 deaths per 100,000) in Virginia. Mortality rates were similar for African-American and white females but were significantly higher for African-American males (5.6 deaths per 100,000) compared to white males (3.3 deaths per 100,000).4
  • Figure 2

    Oral Cancer in Virginia
    Oral cancer has a five-year relative survival rate of 82 percent if diagnosed in its earliest (local) stage when it is most curable.1 In Virginia, 32 percent of oral cancer diagnosed was local stage.2
  • Figure 2 shows the percentage of oral cancers diagnosed local stage by health district. Portsmouth, Norfolk, and Western Tidewater had the lowest percentages of oral cancer cases diagnosed local stage among the 35 health districts.2
  • The percentage of oral cancers diagnosed local stage was lower for males (28%) compared to females (41%) and for African-Americans (22%) compared to whites (34%).2
  • Figure 3

    Oral Cancer in Virginia
    According to recent state health behavior survey data, about 4% of adults aged 18 years and older reported currently using smokeless tobacco, a major risk factor for oral cancer. About 43% of adults aged 40 years and older reported that they had an oral cancer examination in the previous year.6
  • Figure 3 shows the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use by health district in Virginia. Lenowisco, Cumberland Plateau, and West Piedmont had the highest percentages of smokeless tobacco use among the 35 health districts.6
  • Figure 4

    Oral Cancer in Virginia
    Figure 4 shows the percentage of adults 40 years and older reporting an oral cancer examination in the previous year by health district in Virginia. Lenowisco, Cumberland Plateau, and Mount Rogers had the lowest prevalence of oral cancer screening among the 35 health districts.6
  • Smokeless tobacco use was higher among whites (compared to African-Americans) and among adults who were less educated and lower income.6
  • Oral cancer screening was less prevalent in African-Americans compared to whites and in adults who were less educated, lower income, and did not have insurance.6
  • In Virginia in 2009, there were 387 inpatient hospitalizations for oral cavity cancer, at a total cost of close to $20 million. The average length of stay was 6.3 days and the average charge per stay was $51,392.7

1 American Cancer Society Cancer Facts & Figures 2009 (http://www.cancer.org)

2 Virginia Cancer Registry. Based on combined data from 2004-2008. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

3 Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Neyman N, Aminou R, Waldron W, Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Cho H, Mariotto A, Eisner MP, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA, Edwards BK (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2008, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2008/, based on November 2010 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, 2011. Based on combined data from 2004-2008. Rates are ageadjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

4 VDH Division of Health Statistics. Based on combined data from 2005-2009. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

5 Xu JQ, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2007. National vital statistics reports; vol 58 no 19. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr58/nvsr58_19.pdf. National rate is the 2007 age-adjusted rate, which is comparable to the state five-year interval midpoint.

6 Virginia Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Based on 2006 and 2008 (pooled) data. Percentages are populationweighted.

7 VDH Virginia Health Information Hospital Discharge Patient-Level Dataset.

This publication was supported by the Cooperative Agreement Number #5U58DP000780 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent official views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Risk Factors1

  • Factors associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer include age, overweight/obesity, family history of breast or ovarian cancers, and certain genetic mutations (e.g. BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations).
  • Factors associated with decreased risk of ovarian cancer include pregnancy, long-term oral contraceptive use, tubal ligation, and hysterectomy.

Warning Signs and Symptoms1

  • There are often no symptoms of early stage disease.
  • When symptoms occur, they can include abdominal distension, bloating, and increased need to urinate.

Early Detection1

  • There is no proven screening test for ovarian cancer.
  • For high-risk women, a screening approach may be recommended that includes pelvic exam, transvaginal ultrasound, and measuring CA125 level in the blood.

Ovarian Cancer Facts

  • Ovarian cancer is the ninth most commonly diagnosed cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) and the fifth leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States.1
  • Over the 2004-2008 time period, the incidence rate of ovarian cancer among women in Virginia was 12.0 cases per 100,000.2 (U.S. rate=12.8 cases per 100,000)3

    Figure 1

    Ovarian Cancer in Virginia
  • Figure 1 shows incidence rates of ovarian cancer by health district in Virginia. Lenowisco, Roanoke, and Lord Fairfax had the highest incidence rates of ovarian cancer among the 35 health districts.2
  • Over the 2005-2009 time period, the mortality rate from ovarian cancer among women in Virginia was 8.5 deaths per 100,000.4 (U.S. rate=8.2 deaths per 100,000)5
  • Figure 2 shows ovarian cancer mortality rates by health district in Virginia. Hampton, Rappahannock/Rapidan, Central Shenandoah, and Chickahominy had the highest ovarian cancer mortality rates among the 35 health districts.4
  • Figure 2

    Ovarian Cancer in Virginia
    In Virginia, incidence rates were higher in white women (12.5 cases per 100,000) compared to African-American women (8.8 cases per 100,000).2 Ovarian cancer mortality rates were also higher among white women (9.0 deaths per 100,000) compared to African-American women (6.8 deaths per 100,000).4
  • Ovarian cancer has a five-year relative survival rate of 93 percent if diagnosed in its earliest (local) stage when it is most curable.1 In Virginia, only 14 percent of ovarian cancer diagnosed was local stage.2
  • The percentage of ovarian cancer cases diagnosed local stage was similar for both white (14%) and African-American (13%) women in Virginia.2
  • In Virginia in 2009, there were 551 inpatient hospitalizations for ovarian cancer, at a total cost of over $23 million. The average length of stay was 6.2 days and the average charge per stay was $42,093.6

1 American Cancer Society Cancer Facts & Figures 2009 (http://www.cancer.org)

2 Virginia Cancer Registry. Based on combined data from 2004-2008. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

3 Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Neyman N, Aminou R, Waldron W, Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Cho H, Mariotto A, Eisner MP, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA, Edwards BK (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2008, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2008/, based on November 2010 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, 2011. Based on combined data from 2004-2008. Rates are ageadjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

4 VDH Division of Health Statistics. Based on combined data from 2005-2009. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

5 Xu JQ, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2007. National vital statistics reports; vol 58 no 19. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr58/nvsr58_19.pdf. National rate is the 2007 age-adjusted rate, which is comparable to the state five-year interval midpoint.

6 VDH Virginia Health Information Hospital Discharge Patient-Level Dataset.

This publication was supported by the Cooperative Agreement Number #5U58DP000780 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent official views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Risk Factors1

  • The strongest risk factors for developing prostate cancer are age (the majority of cases occur in men 65 years of age and older), race/ethnicity (men of African descent are at especially high risk of developing and dying from the disease), and family history.
  • Dietary factors may also be associated with risk of prostate cancer (animal fat with increased risk and lycopene—an antioxidant found in tomatoes and other red/pink fruits and vegetables—with decreased risk). Being obese may predispose men to dying from the disease.

Warning Signs and Symptoms1

  • There are often no symptoms in the early stages of prostate cancer.
  • When symptoms occur, they often include urinary problems.
  • Late-stage disease that has spread to the bone may cause back, chest, or pelvic pain.

Early Detection1

  • There is currently not strong evidence to recommend routine screening.
  • Screening by PSA blood test and digital rectal exam is an option to consider for average-risk men beginning at age 50 (earlier for high-risk men including men of African descent and those with a family history). Men should discuss prostate screening with their doctors.

Prostate Cancer Facts

  • Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) and the second leading cause of cancer death among men in the United States. One in six men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime.1
  • Figure 1

    Prostate Cancer in Virginia
    Over the 2004-2008 time period, the incidence rate of prostate cancer among men in Virginia was 159.4 cases per 100,000.2 (U.S. rate=156.0 cases per 100,000)3
  • Figure 1 shows incidence rates of prostate cancer by health district in Virginia. Chesterfield, Richmond City, and Crater had the highest incidence rates of prostate cancer among the 35 health districts.2
  • Over the 2005-2009 time period, the mortality rate from prostate cancer among men in Virginia was 25.7 deaths per 100,000.4 (U.S. rate=23.5 deaths per 100,000)5
  • Figure 2

    Prostate Cancer in Virginia
    Figure 2 shows prostate cancer mortality rates by health district in Virginia. Crater, Portsmouth, and Western Tidewater had the highest mortality rates from prostate cancer among the 35 health districts.4
  • Incidence rates were over 65% higher in African-American men compared to white men in Virginia.2
  • Mortality rates were about 2.5 times greater in African-American men compared to white men in Virginia.4
  • Prostate cancer has a five-year relative survival rate of about 100 percent if diagnosed in its earliest (local) stage.1 In Virginia, 77 percent of prostate cancer diagnosed was local stage.2
  • Figure 3

    Prostate Cancer in Virginia
    Figure 3 shows the percentage of prostate cancer diagnosed local stage by health district in Virginia. Richmond City, Alexandria, and Eastern Shore had the lowest percentages of prostate cancer cases diagnosed local stage among the 35 health districts.2
  • The percentage of prostate cancer cases diagnosed local stage was similar for whites (78%) and African-Americans (76%) in Virginia.2
  • According to 2008 health behavior survey data, 59% of Virginia men 50 years and older reported having had a PSA screening test in the previous two years (U.S. average=55%).6
  • Figure 4

    Prostate Cancer in Virginia
    Figure 4 shows the prevalence of PSA screening testing by health district in Virginia. Richmond City, Lenowisco, and Peninsula had the lowest percentages of PSA screening among the 35 health districts.7
  • PSA screening rates were lower among men who were less educated and uninsured.7
  • In Virginia in 2009, there were 1,694 inpatient hospitalizations for prostate cancer, at a total cost of over $61 million. The average length of stay was 2.4 days and the average charge per stay was $36,059.8

1 American Cancer Society Cancer Facts & Figures 2009 (http://www.cancer.org)

2 Virginia Cancer Registry. Based on combined data from 2004-2008. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

3 Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Neyman N, Aminou R, Waldron W, Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Cho H, Mariotto A, Eisner MP, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA, Edwards BK (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2008, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2008/, based on November 2010 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, 2011. Based on combined data from 2004-2008. Rates are ageadjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

4 VDH Division of Health Statistics. Based on combined data from 2005-2009. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

5 Xu JQ, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2007. National vital statistics reports; vol 58 no 19. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr58/nvsr58_19.pdf. National rate is the 2007 age-adjusted rate, which is comparable to the state five-year interval midpoint.

6 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008. (http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/brfss) Accessed 6/2/10.

7 Virginia Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Based on 2006 and 2008 (pooled) data. Percentages are populationweighted.

8 VDH Virginia Health Information Hospital Discharge Patient-Level Dataset.

This publication was supported by the Cooperative Agreement Number #5U58DP000780 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent official views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Risk Factors1

  • Risk factors for skin cancer (including basal and squamous cell cancer) include being sensitive to the sun (i.e. being predisposed to burn rather than tan) and having a high lifetime exposure to the sun or tanning booths.
  • Melanoma risk factors also include a personal/family history of skin cancer and having many moles (50 or more).
  • Steps an individual can take to prevent skin cancer include reducing their sun exposure, taking sun-protective measures (such as using sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or greater and covering up with clothing when outside in the sun), and avoiding tanning booths. It is especially important to protect children from the sun to prevent them from developing skin cancer when they get older.

Warning Signs and Symptoms1

  • Signs of skin cancer (including basal and squamous cell cancer) include new skin growths or changes in existing growths that last for at least a month.

Early Detection1

  • Examine your skin regularly for new growths or changes in growths and have these checked by a health professional. Follow the ABCD rule: A for asymmetric growths; B for border irregularity; C for color variation; and D for diameter (size > pencil eraser).

Melanoma Facts

  • Melanoma (the most serious form of skin cancer) is among the top five cancers diagnosed among men and women in the United States but is relatively rare as a cause of death. Men have a 2.56% chance and women have a 1.73% chance of being diagnosed with melanoma during their lifetime.1
  • Over the 2004-2008 time period, the incidence rate of melanoma in Virginia was 20.3 cases per 100,000.2 (U.S. rate=20.8 cases per 100,000)3
  • Figure 1

    Colorectal Cancer in Virginia
    Figure 1 shows incidence rates of melanoma by health district in Virginia. Chesterfield, Virginia Beach, and Thomas Jefferson had the highest incidence rates of melanoma among the 35 health districts.2
  • Over the 2005-2009 time period, the melanoma mortality rate in Virginia was 3.0 deaths per 100,000.4 (U.S. rate=2.7 deaths per 100,000)5
  • Melanoma incidence rates in Virginia were over twenty times greater in whites compared to African-Americans, and were higher in white males compared to white females.2
  • Melanoma mortality rates in Virginia were about seven times greater in whites compared to African-Americans, and were over twice as high in white males compared to white females.4
  • Melanoma has a five-year relative survival rate of 99 percent if diagnosed in its earliest (local) stage when it is most curable.1 In Virginia, 72 percent of melanoma diagnosed was local stage.2
  • Figure 2

    Colorectal Cancer in Virginia
    Figure 2 shows the percentage of melanoma diagnosed local stage by health district. Lord Fairfax, Arlington, and Portsmouth had the lowest percentages of melanoma cases diagnosed local stage among the 35 health districts.2
  • The percentage of melanoma cases diagnosed local stage was much higher for whites (74%) compared to African-Americans (45%) in Virginia.2
  • According to 2007 health behavior survey data, about a third (32%) of Virginia adults reported having had a sunburn in the previous 12 months.6
  • Figure 3

    Colorectal Cancer in Virginia
    Figure 3 shows the prevalence of adults reporting a sunburn over the previous 12 months by health district in Virginia. Rappahannock, Loudoun, and Lenowisco had the highest percentage of adults reporting a sunburn among the 35 health districts.6
  • IWhite adults (especially white males) were more likely to report having had a sunburn in the previous 12 months.6
  • In Virginia in 2009, there were 62 inpatient hospitalizations for melanoma, at a total cost of over $1.6 million. The average length of stay was 4.7 days and the average charge per stay was $26,449.7

1 American Cancer Society Cancer Facts & Figures 2009 (http://www.cancer.org)

2 Virginia Cancer Registry. Based on combined data from 2004-2008. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

3 Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Neyman N, Aminou R, Waldron W, Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Cho H, Mariotto A, Eisner MP, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA, Edwards BK (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2008, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2008/, based on November 2010 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, 2011. Based on combined data from 2004-2008. Rates are ageadjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

4 VDH Division of Health Statistics. Based on combined data from 2005-2009. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

5 Xu JQ, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2007. National vital statistics reports; vol 58 no 19. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr58/nvsr58_19.pdf. National rate is the 2007 age-adjusted rate, which is comparable to the state five-year interval midpoint.

6 Virginia Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Based on 2006 and 2008 (pooled) data. Percentages are populationweighted.

7 VDH Virginia Health Information Hospital Discharge Patient-Level Dataset.

This publication was supported by the Cooperative Agreement Number #5U58DP000780 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent official views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Introduction

This fact sheet gives an overview of cancer disparities by race in Virginia. Due to limited numbers for other racial and ethnic groups, the focus is on cancer incidence, staging, mortality, risk factor, and screening statistics for African-American and White men and women.

All Sites Cancer

Overall African-Americans had a higher all sites cancer incidence rate than Whites due to an especially high rate in African-American males. African-American males had the highest rate of cancer incidence followed by White males. African-American females had the lowest rate of cancer incidence. African-Americans had a higher all sites cancer mortality rate than Whites. The cancer mortality rate was especially high in African-American males. African-American males and females had higher cancer mortality rates than White males and females, respectively. The percentage of cancers diagnosed local stage was lower in African-American women than in African-American males and White males and females. All sites cancer incidence, staging, and mortality data by race are shown in Table 1.

Table 1: All Sites Cancer Incidence, Staging, and Mortality Data By Race

Table 1

Sources: Incidence and percent local staging (VA Cancer Registry); mortality (VDH Division of Health Statistics)

1Based on combined 2004-2008 data. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

2Based on combined 2004-2008 data. Percent of Local Stage cancers reported using the Summary Staging System.

3Based on combined 2005-2009 data. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

Breast Cancer (Female)

The rate of breast cancer incidence was similar in African-American and White females but the mortality rate was over 50% higher in African-American women. The percentage of breast cancers diagnosed local stage was lower in African-American women than in White women. The prevalence of mammography screening did not differ significantly between African-American and White women. Breast cancer incidence, staging, mortality, and screening data by race are shown in Table 2.

Table 2: Breast Cancer Incidence, Staging, Mortality, and Screening Data By Race

Table 2

Sources: Incidence and percent local staging (VA Cancer Registry); mortality (VDH Division of Health Statistics); screening prevalence (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System)

1Based on combined 2004-2008 data. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

2Based on combined 2004-2008 data. Percent of Local Stage cancers reported using the Summary Staging System.

3Based on combined 2005-2009 data. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

4Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System is a national telephone survey of adults 18+. Breast Cancer Screening = Percent of women age 40 years and older reporting having a mammogram in past two years. Based on 2006 and 2008 data (pooled). Percentages are population-weighted.

Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer incidence rates did not differ significantly between African-American and White females but the mortality rate was 74% higher in African-American females. The percentage of cervical cancers diagnosed local stage was lower in African-American women than in White women. The prevalence of cervical cancer screening did not differ substantially between African-American and White women. Cervical cancer incidence, staging, mortality, and screening data by race are shown in Table 3.

Table 3: Cervical Cancer Incidence, Staging, Mortality, and Screening Data By Race

Table 3

Sources: Incidence and percent local staging (VA Cancer Registry); mortality (VDH Division of Health Statistics); screening prevalence (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System)

1Based on combined 2004-2008 data. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

2Based on combined 2004-2008 data. Percent of Local Stage cancers reported using the Summary Staging System.

3Based on combined 2005-2009 data. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

4Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System is a national telephone survey of adults 18+. Cervical Cancer Screening = Percentage of women age 18 years and older reporting having a Pap test in past three years. Women who had a hysterectomy are excluded. Based on 2006 and 2008 data (pooled).

Percentages are population-weighted.

Colorectal Cancer

The rate of colorectal cancer incidence was about 27% higher in African-Americans compared to Whites. The colorectal cancer death rate was over 50% greater in African-Americans compared to Whites. African-American males were at especially high risk of developing and dying from colorectal cancer. The prevalence of colorectal cancer screening did not differ significantly between African-Americans and Whites. Colorectal cancer incidence, staging, mortality, and screening data are shown in Table 4.

Table 4: Colorectal Cancer Incidence, Staging, Mortality, and Screening Data By Race

Table 4

Sources: Incidence and percent local staging (VA Cancer Registry); mortality (VDH Division of Health Statistics); screening prevalence (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System)

1Based on combined 2004-2008 data. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

2Based on combined 2004-2008 data. Percent of Local Stage cancers reported using the Summary Staging System.

3Based on combined 2005-2009 data. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

4Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System is a national telephone survey of adults 18+. Colorectal cancer screening = Percentage of adults 50 and older who had either a sigmoidoschopy/colonoscopy within the past 5 years and/or a home blood stool test within the past year. Based on 2006 and 2008 data (pooled). Percentages are population-weighted.

Lung and Bronchus Cancer

African-American and White males had higher rates of lung cancer than African-American and White females. African-American and White males also had higher lung cancer death rates than African-American and White females. Lung cancer incidence and mortality rates were especially high in African-American males. The percentage of lung cancers diagnosed local stage was lowest in African-American males and highest in White females. Smoking appeared to be more prevalent among African-American males than among White males or African-American or White females. Lung and bronchus cancer incidence, staging, mortality, and risk factor data are shown in Table 5.

Table 5: Lung and Bronchus Cancer Incidence, Staging, Mortality, and Risk Factor Data By Race

Table 5

Sources: Incidence and percent local staging (VA Cancer Registry); mortality (VDH Division of Health Statistics); risk factor prevalence (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System)

1Based on combined 2004-2008 data. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

2Based on combined 2004-2008 data. Percent of Local Stage cancers reported using the Summary Staging System.

3Based on combined 2005-2009 data. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

4Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System is a national telephone survey of adults 18+. Smoking=Percentage of adults who report currently smoking and have smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime. Based on 2007-2009 data (pooled). Percentages are population-weighted.

Melanoma Cancer

The incidence rate of melanoma was over twenty times greater in Whites compared to African-Americans, and was higher in White males compared to White females. The melanoma mortality rate was about seven times higher in Whites compared to African-Americans, and was more than double in White males compared to White females. About ¾ of melanomas in Whites were diagnosed local stage compared to fewer than half in African-Americans. Sunburn in the previous twelve months was much more prevalent in Whites compared to African-Americans, and was more prevalent in White males compared to White females. Melanoma incidence, staging, mortality, and risk factor data are shown in Table 6.

Table 6: Melanoma Incidence, Staging, Mortality, and Risk Factor Data By Race

Table 6

Sources: Incidence and percent local staging (VA Cancer Registry); mortality (VDH Division of Health Statistics); risk factor prevalence (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System)

1Based on combined 2004-2008 data. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

2Based on combined 2004-2008 data. Percent of Local Stage cancers reported using the Summary Staging System.

3Based on combined 2005-2009 data. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

~ Mortality rate is not reported if 25 or fewer cases.

4Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System is a national telephone survey of adults 18+. Sunburn = Percentage of adults age 18 years and older reporting having a sunburn in the last 12 months. Based on 2007 data. Percentages are population-weighted.

Oral Cavity Cancer

The incidence rate of oral cancer did not differ significantly between African-Americans and Whites. The mortality rate was higher in African-Americans compared to Whites due to an especially high death rate in African-American males. The mortality rate in African-American males was nearly 70% higher than that in White males. Both African-American and White males were much more likely to be diagnosed with and die from oral cancer than African-American and White females. The percentage of oral cancers diagnosed local stage was greater in Whites compared to African-Americans, for African-American females compared to African-American males, and for White females compared to White males. Oral cancer screening was much more as prevalent in Whites (46.7%) compared to African-Americans (27.8%). Smoking appeared to be more prevalent among African-American males than among White males or African-American or White females. Smokeless tobacco use was more prevalent among White males compared to African-American males or females or White females. Oral cavity cancer incidence, staging, mortality, risk factor, and screening data are shown in Table 7.

Table 7: Oral Cavity Cancer Incidence, Staging, Mortality, Risk Factor, and Screening Data By Race

Table 7

Sources: Incidence and percent local staging (VA Cancer Registry); mortality (VDH Division of Health Statistics); risk factor and screening prevalence (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System)

1Based on combined 2004-2008 data. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

2Based on combined 2004-2008 data. Percent of Local Stage cancers reported using the Summary Staging System.

3Based on combined 2005-2009 data. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

4Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System is a national telephone survey of adults 18+.

Smokeless Tobacco Use = Percentage of adults age 18+ years reporting current use of smokeless tobacco. Based on 2005 and 2009 (combined) data.

Percentages are population-weighted.

Oral Cancer Screening = Percentage of adults age 40+ years reporting an oral cancer check by a doctor/dentist within the past 12 months. Based on 2006 and 2009 (combined) data. Percentages are population-weighted.

Ovarian Cancer

White females were both more likely to be diagnosed with and to die from ovarian cancer compared to African-American females. The percentage of ovarian cancers diagnosed local stage was similarly low for both African-American and White females. Ovarian cancer incidence, staging, and mortality data by race are shown in Table 8.

Table 8: Ovarian Cancer Incidence, Staging, and Mortality Data By Race

Table 8

Sources: Incidence and percent local staging (VA Cancer Registry); mortality (VDH Division of Health Statistics)

1Based on combined 2004-2008 data. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

2Based on combined 2004-2008 data. Percent of Local Stage cancers reported using the Summary Staging System.

3Based on combined 2005-2009 data. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population..

Prostate Cancer

African-American males were over 65% more likely to be diagnosed with, and about 2.5 times more likely to die from, prostate cancer compared to White males. The percentage of prostate cancers diagnosed local stage and the prevalence of PSA screening were fairly similar for African-American and White males. Prostate cancer incidence, staging, mortality, and screening data by race are shown in Table 9.

Table 9: Prostate Cancer Incidence, Staging, Mortality, and Screening Data By Race

Table 9

Sources: Incidence and percent local staging (VA Cancer Registry); mortality (VDH Division of Health Statistics); screening prevalence (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System)

1Based on combined 2004-2008 data. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

2Based on combined 2004-2008 data. Percent of Local Stage cancers reported using the Summary Staging System.

3Based on combined 2005-2009 data. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

4Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System is a national telephone survey of adults 18+. Prostate Cancer Screening = Percentage of men age 40 years and older reporting having a PSA test in past two years. Based on data from 2006 and 2008 (pooled). Percentages are population-weighted.

This publication was supported by the Cooperative Agreement Number #5U58DP000780 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent official views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

 

Governor's ReportAnnual Report to Governor

By order of House Joint Resolution No. 56 of the Virginia General Assembly, the Cancer Action Coalition of Virginia is required annually to submit an update on activities and accomplishments related to addressing cancer issues in the Commonwealth.

For the complete Annual Report in PDF format click here.

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